Solid Solutions: Understanding the Importance of Concrete Restoration

Concrete is the backbone of our buildings. When this important material is damaged or compromised, the result can be costly and dangerous.

concrete repair

There are many repair techniques for damaged concrete. Some can be performed by a homeowner, while others require a professional. Major structural repairs should always be completed by a licensed professional. To learn more, visit

Concrete structures are designed to carry structural loads, be durable against the effects of weathering, and withstand the stresses and strains that can occur in service. However, these stresses and strains can cause concrete to crack over time.

While these cracks can be cosmetically distressing, it’s important to repair them as soon as they appear to ensure the integrity of the structure. A professional contractor can identify the type of cracking and determine its significance in order to choose a suitable repair method.

A common repair approach is to use a concrete patching compound or filler to cover the cracks and smooth them out. These are available as pre-mixed compounds that can be applied directly to the surface of a concrete element. For hairline cracks and small surface damage, this may be all that is required.

Larger surface cracks and wider structural cracks can often be repaired with epoxy injection. This involves injecting a highly reactive resin into the crack to create a high-strength, permanently closed seal. The resin expands to fill the crack, and dries with a slightly textured finish that blends in well with surrounding concrete surfaces. This can also be used to seal leaking cracks and is very effective for non-dormant or active cracks.

It’s important to take precautions when using these types of repair materials, especially if working on a ladder or in high places. Wearing safety glasses, a respirator mask, and gloves is recommended. Any contact with the repair or sealing compound or concrete dust can result in chemical burns or other serious injuries. It’s also a good idea to work in a well-ventilated area.

Depending on the severity of a crack, it may be necessary to remove and replace the concrete element. This can be a very time-consuming process that should be completed by a qualified and licensed contractor who understands the proper procedures for removing and replacing concrete.

Concrete can be prone to a wide range of defects and problems that are difficult to identify or prevent. These issues can include improper design, over or under consolidated aggregates, over watering for workability, finishing the surface before bleeding occurs, and poor workmanship during construction. These problems can contribute to a weaker, more brittle concrete that is more prone to cracking and failure in service.


Spalling, or the loss of the top layer of concrete on a surface, is one of the most common problems to affect concrete structures. While superficial spalling may only affect the appearance of a driveway, sidewalk or other surface, deeper spalling weakens the overall concrete structure and can lead to structural damage. Once spalling begins, it can spread quickly, leaving behind a patchy, pitted surface and exposing aggregate. Spalling can also cause serious safety issues for pedestrians and drivers, as it exposes hidden surfaces that can be tripping hazards.

Spalled concrete is typically caused by a combination of environmental factors and structural deficiencies. Exposure to hot and cold temperature extremes over long periods of time can cause concrete to experience stress, which leads to spalling. If the concrete is improperly mixed, poorly finished, or not cured properly, it can become even more susceptible to spalling.

Although replacing the damaged concrete is the best option for addressing spalling, there are some less costly solutions that can be used to repair the existing surface. For example, resurfacing products are available that can be applied to the existing surface to restore its appearance and prevent further spalling.

Regardless of what concrete repair solution is used, it’s important to prepare the area before resurfacing or applying any kind of concrete patch. This includes cleaning in and around the affected area, removing any loose debris and rebar (if applicable). If there are cracks or holes in the concrete surface, these should be filled and roughened to improve bonding. Any exposed rebar should be thoroughly cleaned to remove any corrosion and coated with a rust inhibitor to avoid further deterioration.

Once the concrete has been repaired, it’s important to allow ample time for it to cure and harden before resuming use. For large areas, this can take several days or more. For small patches, it’s often possible to resume use much sooner.

It’s also important to remember that spalling is a progressive problem. A few flakes of concrete that have loosened aren’t a big deal, but as the deterioration continues it will only become easier for moisture to penetrate the slab, leading to more spalling and eventual collapse.


Water damage to concrete is common and can have a major impact on the longevity of a structure. It can happen through a range of different means, from faulty construction to environmental factors. It is important that any damaged concrete is repaired as soon as possible to prevent further problems.

Concrete is prone to water damage because it is porous, meaning that it allows water in and out of the material. As the water enters the concrete, it dissolves the minerals that make up the cement and causes them to disintegrate. This can lead to the formation of cracks, which are then filled with air and moisture. This creates a perfect environment for the growth of mould, which can further deteriorate the concrete.

If left unchecked, water can also cause a slab leak in the foundations of a building. This is because the copper pipes that run beneath the concrete can start to leak. This will result in a significant drop in water pressure throughout the house, and it can even be a safety hazard if the leak is from underneath a hot water system.

One of the best ways to identify a slab leak is by looking for damp spots or water stains on the floor. You may also notice a musty odour or signs of mould. These are all indicators that there is a problem with the slab and it is essential to take action quickly.

There are a number of different products that can be used to help seal leaks in concrete. These include foams, quick-setting mortars and epoxies. However, these are usually a band-aid solution and they don’t provide a complete waterproof barrier. A more effective option is to use a hydraulic cement product like Kryton’s Krystol Plug(tm). This uses crystalline technology to react with water ingress and fill in the capillary pores and micro-cracks, preventing water infiltration. For more information about repairing concrete cracks or to discuss your project, get in touch with us today. We can offer advice and a range of solutions to suit your needs.

Crack Sealing

Crack sealing in concrete repair is an essential step in preserving your property and preventing future damage. Exterior concrete cracks can occur due to temperature changes, ground movement, improperly placed joints and excessive loads. If left untreated the cracks can get worse, causing further deterioration of the concrete. Crack sealants provide a protective barrier, stopping water and sand from entering the concrete, reducing the rate of deterioration and extending the life of the concrete.

When using a crack filler, be sure to wear eye protection and waterproof gloves, and work in a well-ventilated area. Before applying the crack filler, widen the crack to a minimum of 1/4 inch using a chisel and hammer (the edges of the crack should be vertical or beveled in an inverted “V”). Clean the crack of any dirt, gravel, debris or oil, as this can prevent the concrete crack filler from bonding to the surface of the concrete.

After cleaning the crack, apply a primer/sealer to both sides of the crack, as this will increase adhesion. Let the primer/sealer dry for at least 24 hours. Next, mix the concrete patching compound following manufacturer’s instructions and guidelines. When the mixture is ready, stab a trowel into it to eliminate air pockets and assist with working it into the crack. Smooth the crack filler immediately after application to avoid any lumps or unevenness.

The best concrete crack fillers to use are low modulus healers/sealers. These types of resins will seal the crack, help to bridge the crack, and bind the concrete back together. They are also designed to be able to move with the crack, which is important for conditions where there will be mechanical or thermal movement of the concrete.

Once the concrete crack filler is smoothed, use a caulking gun to force the concrete crack filler into the crack. If needed, place a backing rod in the crack prior to applying the concrete crack filler. Then, slowly draw the caulking gun along the crack, forcing a bead of concrete repair caulk deep into the crack. Let the crack filler cure as directed.